GENE SLOVERS
US NAVY PAGES

NAVAL ORDNANCE 1937
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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

Explosive Reactions.

Explosive Substances
Initiation of Explosion
Heat of Explosion
Velocity of Explosion
Pressure of Explosion
Gases of Explosion
Flame of Explosion
Flashless Explosion

CHAPTER II.

SERVICE EXPLOSIVES.

History of Development of Explosives
Explosive Substances-General Characteristics
Explosive Mixtures and Explosive Compounds
Uses of Military Explosives
Propellants, Igniters, and Detonating Charges
Manufacture of Smokeless Powder
Reworked Powder
Products of Combustion of Nitrocellulose Powder
Stability of Nitrocellulose Powder
Guncotton
Black Powder
Trinitrotoluene (TNT)
Trinitroxylene (TNX)
Picric Acid
Tetryl
Fulminate of Mercury

CHAPTER III.

INTERIOR BALLISTICS.

Preliminary
The Powder within the Gun
Mean Powder Pressure
Distribution of Work
Development, of Interior Ballistic Formulas
Application of Interior Ballistic Formulas
The Pressure Problem
Reduced Velocity Problem, Type I
Transfer-of-Powder Problem, Type I
Reduced Velocity Problem, Type II
Other Problems of General Interest
Other Interior Ballistic Considerations

CHAPTER IV

GUNS.

Types of Guns
Classification of Guns aboard Ship
Classification of Batteries aboard Ship
Designation of Guns
Component Parts
Exterior Parts
Interior Parts
Principles Underlying Gun Design
The Built-up Gun
The Wire-Wound Gun
The Radial-Expansion Gun
Practical Gun Design
Gun Projects
Rifling

CHAPTER V.

ELASTIC STRENGTH OF GUNS.

501. IN THIS REVISION THIS CHAPTER HAS BEEN OMITTED. ANYONE INTERESTED IN A COMPARATIVELY EXTENSIVE TREATMENT OF "ELASTIC STRENGTH OF GUNS" IS REFERRED TO NAVAL ORDNANCE, 1933.

CHAPTER VI.

Construction OF NAVAL GUNS.

Furnace Practice
Ingots
Whitworth Process
Forgings
Tempering and Annealing
Testing Machines
Summary of Steps of Manufacture of Built-Up Guns
Turning
Boring
Indicators
Bore Searching
Star Gauge
Shrinkage
Assembling the Gun
Shrinkage Pit
Assembling the Parts
Lining the Gun
Finishing the Gun
Final Turning
Rifling
Determination of Droop
Chasing Thread for Screw-Box Liner
Lapping
Fitting the Breech Mechanism
Milling the Keyway
Putting on Yoke
Final Inspection

CHAPTER VII.

Breech Mechanisms

Definition
Requirements for Breech Mechanism
Systems of Breech Blocks
Systems of Operation of Breech Mechanisms
Types of Breech Mechanisms Used on Intermediate and Major Caliber Guns
Types of Quick-Acting Breech Mechanisms
Principal Characteristics in Gas Check Design
Types of Gas Checks
Automatic Sealing by Gas Checks
The DeBange Gas Check Pad
Mechanism for Breaking the Gas Check Seal
Types of Salvo Latches
3-Inch Semi-Automatic Breech Mechanism
5-Inch 25-Caliber A. A. Breech Mechanism
5-Inch Breech Mechanism, Mark VII
The DeBange Gas Check System
6-Inch 53-Caliber Breech Mechanism
14-Inch Breech Mechanism
16-Inch Breech Mechanism
Firing Mechanism
Firing Lock, Mark XIV
Safety Features of Mark XIV Firing Lock

CHAPTER VIII.

Firing Attachments

Definition of Firing Attachments
Methods of Fire
Turret Firing Circuit
Broadside Firing Circuit
Firing Keys
Care of Attachments
Gas Expelling Apparatus

CHAPTER IX.

Naval Gun Mounts

General Features of Mounts
Stresses Due to Firing
Broadside Gun Mounts
Frictionless Bearings
Anti-Aircraft Gun Mounts
Turret Mounts, General Features
l4-Inch 3-.Gun Turret Mount
Waterbury Hydraulic Speed Gear

CHAPTER X.

Recoil and Recoil Brakes.

General Considerations
Design of Brakes
Forces Acting During Recoil
General Features of Hydraulic Brakes
Turret Type Hydraulic Brakes
Intermediate and Minor Caliber Hydraulic Brakes
General Features of Counter-Recoil Mechanisms
Spring Counter-Recoil Systems
Spring-Pneumatic Counter-Recoil Systems
Pneumatic Counter-Recoil Systems

CHAPTER XI.

Naval Gun Sights

Preliminary Discussion and Definitions
Fundamental Principles of Gun Sights
Elementary Open Sight, Description
Basic Requirements of Installation on Gun Mount
The Peep Sight
The Telescope Sight
Types of Telescopes
Sight Scales
Yoke Sight Mounts
Turret Sight Mounts
Boresighting
Testing Sight Installations

CHAPTER XII.

ARMOR.

Historical Development
Iron Armor
Steel Armor
Compound Armor
Nickel-Steel Armor
Harvey Armor
Krupp Armor
Manufacture of Krupp Cemented Armor
Non-Cemented Armor
Definition of Class A Armor
Summary of Armor Development
Class A Armor
Ballistic Test of Class A Armor
Penetration
Penetration of Nickel-Steel Armor
Penetration of Face-Hardened Armor. The Factor of Performance
Oblique Attack. The Angle Multiplier
Class B Armor
Ballistic Test of Class B Armor
Armor Bolts
Light Armor
Distribution of Armor

CHAPTER XIII

Projectiles

Early Development
Length
Form of Forward End
Form of After End
Form of Body
Exterior Finish
Weight
The Bourrelet
The Rotating Band
Stability and Flight
Under-Water Attack
Types of Projectiles
The Armor Piercing Projectile
Manufacture of Armor Piercing Projectiles
Penetration
Action of the Cap
Form of Ogive
Common and Thin-Walled Projectiles
Shrapnel
Illuminating Projectiles
Chemical Projectiles
Target Projectiles
Proof Shot
Line-Carrying Projectiles
CHAPTER XIV.

Ammunition

Types
Separate Loading
Semi-Fixed and Fixed
Small-Arms
Trench Warfare
Chemical
Pyrotechnic
Bomb-Type
Impulse
Primers
Percussion Primers
Combination Primers
Fuzes
Percussion Fuzes
Time Fuzes
Frankford 21-Second Fuze
Ammunition Details
Detonators
Boosters and Adapters
Tracers
Projectiles
Cartridge Cases
Case Ammunition Tanks and Boxes
Powder Bags
Distance Pieces and Wads
Mouth Plugs
Powder Tanks
Assembly of Ammunition
Marking of Ammunition
Ammunition Stowage
Flooding
Cooling and Ventilation
Lighting, Magazine
Ammunition Supply

CHAPTER XV.

The Naval Proving Ground

Proving Ground Facilities
Proof of Guns
Proof of Mounts
Proof of Powder
Test of Projectiles
Test of Armor
Ranging
Velocity Measurements.
Pressure Measurements.
Recoil and Counter-Recoil Measurements
Experiments

CHAPTER XVI.

Naval Landing Gun.

General Information
The Mount
The Recoil System
The Counter-Recoil System
The Elevating Mechanisms
Design Principle of Sights
The Effect of Trunnion Tilt
The Panoramic Sight
The Peep Sight
Operation, Direct Fire
Operation, Indirect Fire
Deflection Offset Corrections

CHAPTER XVII.

Small Arms and Machine Guns

The Military Rifle
Principles of Operation, Automatic Arms
Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45
Browning Automatic Rifle
Lewis Machine Gun
Browning Machine Gun
Browning Aircraft Machine Gun
Muzzle Attachments